Surfactants: Alkyl-aryl sulfonates

The linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is one of the most widely used detergents, but its use in personal care is very limited. It has a very low compatibility with skin, and is usually only used in anti-seborrheic or very oily skin cleansers.This picture is of sodium linear alkyl benzene sulfonate. It has good detergency and...

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Surfactants: Alkyl sulfonates – like Bioterge AS-40 or Bioterge AS-90 (INCI: C14-16 Olefin Sulfonate)

There are three main types of alkyl sulfonates – primary paraffin sulfates (PPS), secondary paraffin sulfates (SPS) or secondary alkyl sulfates (SAS), and alpha-olefin sulfates (AOS). The paraffin sulfonates are good foamers and good oil in water emulsifiers. They do not thicken with the addition of salt. I can’t find any examples of these surfactants. The...

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Surfactants: Sulfonates

Sulfonates are very closely related, but not exactly the same as sulfates. In a sulfate, the sulfur is linked directly to the carbon chain via an oxygen atom. In a sulfonate, the sulfur is linked directly to a carbon atom (the R in the picture). What difference does this make? Tune into the posts to...

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What makes a shampoo clarifying?

What’s the difference between a clarifying shampoo and a regular shampoo? Clarifying shampoos are intended to remove the styling agents you’ve been using while curling or straightening, so they don’t contain conditioning agents or silicones. You’ll notice I don’t tend to use conditioning agents or dimethicone in my shampoo recipes. The reason for this is...

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Surfactants: Alkyl glyceride sulfates

Alkyl glyceride sulfates are produced by the transesterification of coconut oil, followed by sulfation with sulfur trioxide then neutralization with lye. They are great foam boosters and have similar foaming power to the amide ether sulfates. These are great combined with the alkyl polyglucosides, non-ionic surfactants derived from glucose. Alkyl glyceride sulfates will thicken with...

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