Q&A: Making and using citric acid and 18% sodium hydroxide solutions?

In the May Q&A, Sarah commented, I have some questions!!! 1) Regarding changing pH; can I make and bottle a 50% citric acid solution and an 18% sodium hydroxide solution or do I need to make it fresh each time? 2) If bottling, does it need a preservative with the extreme acidity/alkalinity? 3) How long will each last...

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Q&A: Is allantoin amphoteric? What’s an isoelectric point? Can we use it in anionic products?

Let’s continue with Mia Makes Things’ questions about using Germaben II in products and her third question about allantoin: The closest thing I’ve found is Sepimax ZEN, a gel former, which is anionic. And even then, as an anionic ingredient it prohibits the use of the cationic (at typical pH) allantoin. Which pretty much defeats my...

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Chemistry time! Acids and bases and pH – oh my!

I’m not sure what’s going on out there in the world, but there seem to be some serious misunderstandings about acids, bases, pH, and more, so let’s just get down to it. I’ll give you a quick summary in bold, and a longer explanation, if you want it. WHAT DOES pH MEAN? pH is a...

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Member exclusive Q&A: What should be the pH of our finished products for fruit acid complex?

In the January Q&A, Marta asked: What is the recommended pH for a facial product containing fruit acid complex or willow bark extract? You have discussed concerns about a pH being too low in formulations containing (straight) alpha hydroxy acids or salicylic acid. Yet, should one be reducing the pH in a product containing fruit acid...

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